World War I
The First World War was followed by a humanitarian crisis in eastern Europe, with destitute war orphans and the spread of typhus creating significant challenges for aid societies.
One of the many services provided by the YMCA was accommodation for soldiers on leave. This pamphlet was carried by a member of the 4th Canadian Mounted Rifles.
This poster, distributed by a Toronto newspaper, honoured the unveiling of the National War Memorial in Ottawa, just a few months before the beginning of the Second World War.
Sculptor Walter Allward had completed the Bell Memorial in Brantford and was working on the Canadian memorial at Vimy Ridge in France when his memorial to the dead of Brant County in southern Ontario was unveiled. Budget shortfalls meant that the intended allegorical figures could not be added at that time.
Conscription came to Canada in 1917 amidst great controversy. This leaflet was part of the government's effort to explain why it was necessary and how it would work.
A typical combination of song sheet and recruiting pamphlet, this leaflet included traditional anthems and hymns for which new lyrics had been written.
Children who had no access to actual military badges could collect cards of the badges instead.
With the Canadians pulling out of Britain after the First World War, there was a need to use up resources - so, this card for a March 1919 dance at the 3rd Canadian Reserve Battalion was printed on the back of a January 1918 leave permit issued to Toronto soldier Charles Kinsey.
The National War Memorial in Ottawa was more than a decade from completion when this song was published. Sales of this card benefited the Canadian Legion.
At the end of the First World War, the Canadian government faced an unprecedented problem with the return of tens of thousands of ex-soldiers who would be looking for work. It relied on local officials for appraisals of the job market in various areas.
Caleb Harrison of Forest Hill, New Brunswick, was conscripted under the Military Service Act in July 1918. These documents gave him leave from Camp Sussex on compassionate grounds in September 1918 , and formalized his discharge in January 1919.
British press baron Lord Northcliffe published this contemporary history of the Great War, with proceeds going to the British Red Cross Society and the Order of St John.
The Canadian Red Cross Society furnished these statistics about the activities of its sister society in Britain - which was spending $30 every minute on relief and charitable work related to the war.
In 1918, in recognition of the importance of food to the Allied war effort, the province of Prince Edward island proclaimed the week of 22 April to be "a week of Dedication and Preparation" for the coming planting season.
When men of the King William Lodge joined the 105th Regiment, their fellow lodge members gave them each a pocket bible and their best wishes for a safe return at war's end.
On the fifth anniversary of the beginning of the First World War, Great War veterans in Vernon, British Columbia, built this evocative display.
Great War veterans and militia soldiers shared the streets of Pembroke, Ontario, for the 1931 Armistice Day parade.
For many new soldiers, the introduction to army life included healthy doses of bending, stretching, and other exercises laid out in this First World War manual.
Soldiers were fond of altering the lyrics to hymns for comic effect - so, "What a Friend We Have in Jesus" became "When This Lousy War is Over."